This Hybrid CoE Working Paper analyzes the key instruments that Russia can use to achieve its political objectives in the Republic of Moldova. By taking advantage of the growing energy crisis related to rising
gas and electricity prices and limiting their supply to Moldova, Moscow is contributing to the growing social discontent, which is then exploited by pro-Russian opposition groups supported by Moscow, who organize regular anti-government protests. The deteriorating financial situation also fuels Russian-backed anti-government forces in the traditionally pro-Russian autonomous Gagauzia. At the same time, the Kremlin is trying to build up a sense of insecurity in Moldova. This is being fostered both by the frequent false bomb alerts recently triggered mainly in Chisinau and by alleged terrorist attacks carried out in separatist Transnistria. To support these activities, Russia uses the mass media functioning in Moldova
(both classical and online), groups on social media, cyber warfare, and fake news. At the propaganda level, the pro-Russian opposition and anti-Western, powerful Moldovan Orthodox Church (subordinate to
the Moscow Patriarchate) also support this narrative.