Security Operations & Incident Management Knowledge Area by Herve Debar – Telecom SudParis

Security Operations & Incident Management Knowledge Area by Herve Debar - Teleom SudParis


The roots of Security Operations and Incident Management (SOIM) can be traced to the original report by James Anderson [6] in 1981. This report theorises that full protection of the information and communication infrastructure is impossible. From a technical perspective, it would require complete and ubiquitous control and certi€cation, which would block or limit usefulness and usability. From an economic perspective, the cost of protection measures nd the loss related to limited use effectively require an equilibrium between openness and protection, generally in favour of openness. From there on, the report promotes the use of detection techniques to complement protection. The next ten years saw the development of the original theory of intrusion detection by Denning [23], which still forms the theoretical basis of most of the work detailed in this KA.
Security Operations and Incident Management can be seen as an application and automation of the Monitor Analyze Plan Execute-Knowledge (MAPE-K) autonomic computing loop to cybersecurity [37], even if this loop was de€ned later than the initial developments of SOIM.
Autonomic computing aims to adapt ICT systems to changing operating conditions. The loop, described in €gure 1, is driven by events that provide information about the current behaviour of the system. The various sequential steps of the loop analyse the event stream (trace) to provide feedback to the system, changing its behaviour according to observations and policies,
enabling automatic adaptation to best provide service for users. The developments of SOIM have increased in automation and complexity over the years, as a result of our increasing reliance on the proper service delivery of the ICT infrastructure. These developments have slowly covered most of the spectrum of the MAPE-K loop.
After nearly 40 years of research and development, the Security Operations and Incident Management domain has reached a suf€cient maturity to be deployed in many environments.
While early adopters were mainly located in ICT-intensive sectors such as telecoms and banking, it is €nding its place in sectors that are increasingly embracing or converting to digital technologies. Yet, research is still very active in addressing the many remaining challenges. With respect to detection, new emerging environments driven by new technologies and services are requiring the acquisition and analysis of new data streams. The tools, techniques and processes available today for detecting and mitigating threats also regularly fail to prevent successful attackers from penetrating and compromising ICT infrastructures, without regular users noticing. Extremely large-scale events also occur at regular intervals, and there is a de€nite need for progress in terms of reaction to attacks.
The Security Operations and Incident Management knowledge area description starts by introducing some of the vocabulary, processes and architecture in section 1. It then follows the loop concepts, discussing detection at the sensor level, both looking at data sources (Monitor, section 2) and detection algorithms (Analyze, section 3). It then discusses Security Information and Event Management, instantiating Analyze from a more global perspective than sensors, Plan in section 4 and examples of Execute. Using the Security Orchestration, Automation and Response (SOAR) concept, it further develops the modern aspects of the Plan and Execute activities in section 5. Of course, all these activities are built upon a Knowledge base. Several knowledge components are described in section 6. The KA concludes with human factors in section 7.

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