Malware is a growing threat which causes considerable cost to individuals, companies and institutions. Since basic signature-based antivirus defences are not very useful against recently emerged malware threats or APT attacks, it is essential for an investigator to have the fundamental skillset in order to analyse and mitigate these threats. While specific measures need to be taken for particular cases, this handbook gives an overview of how to analyse malware samples in a closed environment by reverse engineering using static or dynamic malware analysis techniques. The information in this handbook focuses on reverse-engineering fundamentals from the malware perspective, without irrelevant details. Some simple steps and definitions are, therefore, omitted to retain the focus. Resources mentioned in this handbook can be accessed with a simple internet search.
There is no novel work presented in this handbook, as it can be considered as the first steps in investigating malware. The reader will become familiar with the most common open-source toolkits used by investigators around the world when analysing malware. Notes and best practice are also included. By applying the techniques and tools presented here, an analyst can build Yara rules that can help during the investigation to identify other threats or victims.