The rise of large language models (LLMs) has had a significant impact on various domains, including natural language processing and artificial intelligence. While LLMs such as ChatGPT have been extensively researched for tasks such as code generation and text synthesis, their application in detecting malicious web content, particularly phishing sites, has been largely unexplored. To combat
the rising tide of automated cyber attacks facilitated by LLMs, it is imperative to automate the detection of malicious web content, which requires approaches that leverage the power of LLMs to analyze and classify phishing sites.

In this paper, we propose a novel method that utilizes ChatGPT to detect phishing sites. Our approach involves leveraging a web crawler to gather information from websites and generate prompts based on this collected data. This approach enables us to detect various phishing sites without the need for fine-tuning machine learning models and identify social engineering techniques from the context of entire websites and URLs. To evaluate the performance of our proposed method, we conducted experiments using a dataset. The experimental results using GPT-4 demonstrated promising performance, with a precision of 98.3% and a recall of 98.4%. Comparative analysis between GPT-3.5 and GPT-4 revealed an enhancement in the latter’s capability to reduce false negatives. These findings not only highlight the potential of LLMs in efficiently identifying phishing sites but also have significant implications for enhancing cybersecurity measures and protecting users from the dangers of online fraudulent activities.


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