Data localization measures have been on the rise in recent years, with a majority of countries having
implemented some form of localization requirements as of 2022. These measures are often perceived as
addressing privacy concerns or promoting local jobs. In the debates around these measures, however, the
importance of global data flows to the international cybersecurity ecosystem has been largely under-discussed and underappreciated.
Through a series of case studies, this paper seeks to highlight the myriad ways in which global data flows enable cybersecurity professionals and technologies to manage risks and detect and disrupt threat actors with speed and at scale. It is our hope that this can be a useful contribution as policymakers and
other stakeholders debate the merits and tradeos of data localization as well as put forward approaches that respond to multiple interests.