Jenkins, a cornerstone in the CI/CD landscape, is not only pivotal in automating development pipelines but also emerges as a significant target for Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) actors. The security of Jenkins is multifaceted, involving understanding and mitigating potential attack vectors and surfaces, which is crucial for protecting the CI/CD pipeline and, consequently, the organizational assets. Attack Vectors in Jenkins
- Credential Exploits: Involving tactics like credential stuffing and API key exposure.
- Shell Exploits: Including remote code execution and script manipulation.
- Plugin Vulnerabilities: Stemming from the use of outdated or misconfigured plugins.
Attack Surfaces in Jenkins
- User Interface: Encompassing the web interface and API endpoints.
- Log Recorders: Ensuring logs and tasks do not expose sensitive data.
- Script Console: Managing script execution and access.
- Jenkins CLI: Overseeing command execution and access control.
- Credentials: Safeguarding storage and transmission of . credentials.
- Shell: Securing command and script execution.
- Plugins: Ensuring security and access control of plugins.
APT Report: Jenkins in the Crosshairs APTS targeting Jenkins exploit various vectors to gain unauthorized access, exfiltrate data, or establish a foothold within an organization’s network. A typical APT scenario might involve initial access through credential stuffing, establishing a foothold via malicious plugins, privilege escalation through misconfigurations, data exfiltration, and causing impactful disruptions.
A high-profile e-commerce platform fell victim to an attack exploiting a known vulnerability in a Jenkins plugin, leading to unauthorized access and data exfiltration.
Shodan, a search engine for internet-connected devices, can be utilized to locate Jenkins servers using specific dorks, such as searching for web pages with a title that includes “Dashboard [Jenkins]” or Jenkins servers based on the hash of the favicon.
Jenkins Important Files: A Red Teaming Perspective Red teaming, simulating cyber-attacks, identifies vulnerabilities in systems like Jenkins. Files and directories, such as /bitnami/Jenkins/home/users.xml (storing user data) or /bitnami/Jenkins/home/credentials (storing encrypted credentials), can be exploited at different stages of a red team operation, from reconnaissance to cleanup, to gain unauthorized access, decrypt sensitive data, or manipulate processes.
Jenkins: Critical Paths and API Endpoints in Red Teaming Understanding critical paths and API endpoints in Jenkins is vital for both attackers and defenders in red teaming. Paths like /bitnami/Jenkins/home/users/ and API endpoints like /whoAml/api/json can be exploited across various stages, from reconnaissance to impact, to extract secrets, automate login attempts, initiate malicious builds, or exploit vulnerabilities in plugins.
Jenkins Plugin Security and Development Guidelines Ensuring the security of Jenkins plugins is paramount. Developers must adopt a security-first approach in plugin development and usage to prevent vulnerabilities and maintain the stability and security of the Jenkins environment. This involves adhering to best practices and guidelines that prioritize security in the development, deployment, and management of plugins.